Monday, December 8, 2008

general Types of literature

GENERAL TYPES OF LITERATURE

 

  1. PROSE

Consists of those written within the common flow of conversation in sentence and paragraphs.

·         NOVEL

This is long narrative divided into chapters. The events are taken from to life stories…and spam long period of time.

·         SHORT STORY

A narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression.

·         PLAYS

This is presented on stage, is divided into acts and has many scenes.

·         LEGENDS

These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins.

·         FABLES

These are also fictitious, they deal animals and imitate things that speak and act like people, and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes.

·         ANECDOTES

A merely product of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the readers and attitudes.

·         ESSAY

This is expresses the viewpoint of the writer about a particular problem or event.

·         BIOGRAPHY

Deals with the life of a person, which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others.

·         NEWS

Report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry and accidents, happening nationally or not.

·         ORATION

A formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of the audience.

 

  1. POETRY

Refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has a more melodious tone.

·         Narrative poetry describes important events in life real or imaginary.

·         Lyric poetry refers to that king of poetry meant to be song to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and fillings of the poet.

·          Dramatic

 

 

  1. NARRATIVE POETRY

A.1 EPIC

An extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control. It may deal with heroes and gods.

 

A.2 METRICAL TALE

Narrative, which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or as a metrical romance. Ex. Bayani ng Bukid

 

A.3 BALADS

Of the narrative poems, this is the shortest and simplest. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident.

 

  1. LRYRIC POETRY

B.1 FOLKSONGS (AWIT NG BAYAN)

These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow.

 

B.2 SONNETS

 a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling of an idea.

 

B.3 ELEGY

This is a lyric poem, which express feelings of grief and melancholy and whose themr is death.

 

B.4 ODE

A poem of noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza.

 

B.5 PSALM (DALIT)

A sound praising god or the Virgin Mary and containing a philosophy of life.

 

B.6 AWIT (SONG)

Measures of a 12 (do decasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or Banduria. Ex. Florante at Laura

 

B.7 CORRIDO

Have measure of eight (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat.

  

  1. DRAMATIC

C.1 COMEDY

Comes from the greek  “komos” meaning festivity or revelry. This is usually light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending.

 

C.2 MELODRAMA

Usually used in musical plays with opera. It arouses immediate and intense emotions and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principal character.

 

C.3 TRAGEDY

Involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death or ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy.

 

C.4 FARCE

Exaggerated comedy, situations are too ridiculous to be true; and the characters seem to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd.

 

AMERICAN REGIME

The active arousal of nationalism I the field of literature started to be felt in the following newspaper;

 

·         El Nuevo Dia (The New Day) – established by Sergio Osmeña in 1900. the American censors twice banned this and this and threatened Osmeña with banishment because of his nationalistic writings.

 

·         El Grito del Pueblo (The Call of the Nation) – established by Pascual Poblete in 1900.

 

·         El Renacimiento (The Rebirth) – founded by Rafael Palma in 1900.

 

  1. LITERATURE IN SPANISH
  1. CECILIO APOSTOL – wrote poems decided to Rizal, Jacinto and Mabini and all other heroes but his poem dedicated to Rizal (A Rizal) is considered the best poem in praise of the hero of Bagumbayan.

 

  1. FERNADO Ma. GUERRO – shared with Apostol the reign in Balagtasan in Spanish during their time. He also wrote a poem dedicated to Rizal, Invocation a Rizal (A call to Rizal). He collected the best of his poem in a book called CRISALIDAS meaning a somewhat black, wooly caterpillar. 

 

  1. JESUS BALMORI – well known as for his pen name of “BATIKULING”. He participated in a debate – remembrance and forgetfulness. He was elected poet Laureate in Spanish.

 

  1. MANUEL BERNABE – a lyric poet the fierceness of his nationalistic spirits was uncharged in any topics he wrote.

 

  1. CLARO M. RECTO – he collected his poems in a book entitled “BAJO LOS COCOTEROS” (Under the Coconut Trees).

 

  1. ADELINA GUERREA – was the first poems in the Philippines who were good in Spanish. She obtained the Zobel price in her El Nido (The Nest).

 

  1. MACARIO ADRIATICO – wrote the legend of Mindoro entitled La Punta de Salto (The place of Origin).

 

  1. EPIFANIO DELOS SANTOS (Don Ponyong) – a Good leader and biographer during the whole period of Spanish literature.

 

  1. FILIPINO LITERATURE

Julian Cruz Balmaced classified three kinds of tagalong Poets, they were:

 

  1. poets of the heart (Makata ng Puso)
  2. Poets of the life (Makata ng Buhay)
  3. Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan)

 

LOPE K. SANTOS – novelist, poet, author and grammarian, father of the National Language Grammar. He was also Called “APO” of the tagalong writers. BANAAG AT SIKAT was his masterpiece.

 

JOSE CORAZON DE JESUS – very popularly known as “Huseng Batute”. He was also called the poet of love. Ang isang punongkahoy (a Tree), an elegy, is believed to be masterpiece.

 

AMANDO V. HERNANDEZ – dubbed as Makata ng mga manggagawa (poet of the laborers) because he pictures in his poem the intense love for the poor worker or laborers. The pen is powerful and according to him, even a king can be bent by the pen. Isang Dipang lagit, Bayang Malaya, Munting Lupa and Ang Panday are some of his writings.

 

THE TAGALOG DRAMA

SEVERINO REYES & HERMOGENES ILAGAN – started a movement against mor-moro and struggled to show the people the values one get from zarzuela.

 

SEVERINO REYES – father of the Tagalog drama and author of the immortal Walang Sugat.

 

AURELIO TOLENTINO – the dramatist in whom the Kapampangans take pride include in his writings were Luhang Tagalog, his masterpiece, and kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas that in his incarcerator.

 

ILOCANO LITERATURE

PEDRO BUKANEG – father of Ilocano literature. From his name derived the word “Bukanegan” which means balagtasan in Ilocano.

 

CLARO CALUYA – prince of Ilocano poets. Known as poet and novelist.

 

LEON PICHAY – known as the best bukanegero (from Bekaneg)

 

PAMPANGO LITERATURE

 JUAN CRISOSTOMO SOTO – father of Kapampangan Literature. The word “crisotan” meaning balagtasan is taken from his name.

 

AURELIO TOLENTINO – he truly his being a Kapampangan in his translation of “kahapon, ngayon at bukas” into Kapampangan which he called Napon, Ngeni at bukas.

 

VIZAYAN LITERATURE 

ERIBERTO GUMBAN – father of Visayan literature. He wroye a zarzuela, a moro-moro and play in Visayan.

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